Welcome to Miami Citizens Against Naled (MiamiCAN.org)
MiamiCAN was started to bring accurate information to the people of Miami Beach. This site is being developed with the main focus of bringing together major studies published on ZIKA Virus - historically and current. This will also include reviews (and links to original studies) of medical research documenting potential negative health impacts of using pesticides for ZIKA abatement. This information will be especially helpful to scientists and polticians involved in public health policy and research.
We are especially concerned with ZIKA's higher rates of infection in poverty areas of Brazil. People living in depressed living conditions have higher exposures to chemicals known to weaken the immune system, including pesticides, burning plastics in trash, and heightened exposure to pesticides from large scale neighborhood mosquito control programs (both aerial and street spray methods). Homes in poverty stricken areas typically do not have glass windows which would otherwise prevent pesticides from entering into the home during large scale mosquito spray campaigns. As shown in the research below, when immune systems are weakened by pesticides, it significantly increases the growth of viruses and harm to the host.
In 2007, an outbreak of illness was noted on Yap Island in MIcronesia. Symptoms included rash, fever, conjuctivitis, arthralgia and arthritis. Blood samples from 71 acutely ill people were tested for Zika using the latest techniques (TR-PCR). Of these 71 acutely ill people, only 10 (14%) tested positive for Zika. Interestingly, tests for dengue, chik, and all other arboviruses were negative. Researchers then conducted a wider survey of Zika antibodies among its 7,391 residents. Results showed approximately 75% of everyone over age 3 had antibodies against zika showing they had been bitten by zika infected mosquitoes. This number may be higher as antibodies may last only weeks in the blood. Researchers also stated that there was not one hospitalizaton needed for people testing positive for zika. More details of this study can be seen here in the New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 36:2536, Jun 11, 2009.

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NALED Breaks-Down into
More Toxic Pesticide
  Microcephaly Increases
After NALED Exposure
  Critical Immune System
Cells Damaged
  Mosquito Populations
Increase After Spraying
  Harm to Wildlife

Cornell University Fact Sheet

(See Environmental Fate Section)
Neurochemical Research

Vol. 19(5), 569-574, 1994
Vol. 243(3):294-30
SOURCE: J of the American Mosquito Control Association,
Vol. 13(4):315-25, 1997
The above photo shows a duck that died 3 days after aerial pesticide spraying in Tampa, Florida.

The public is told that NALED "breaks-down" over 1 or 2 days, therby impllying it is safe. While it is true that Naled breaks-down quickly, what is also true is that NALED breaks-down to a chemical that is actually 4 times more toxic than Naled. The chemical - called DICHLORVOS, forms from reactoins with sunlight and oxygen. Here are the facts from Cornell University Fact Sheet:

Naled has a half-life in soil of about 1 day. Once applied, after 24 hours we have 1/2 left - after two days we have 1/4 left - 4 days 1/8th etc. Naled has a half life in water of about 2 days. So, affter 2 days we have half of Naled left in rivers, streams, lakes - after 4 days we have 1/4 left and after about a week we have 1/8th left.

Naled breaks down to the chemical Dichlorvos (also called DDVP) which is apparently significantly more toxic than Naled. Dichlorvos has a half life in soil of 7 days. So, half of the chemical is still in the soil at one week. In water, it has a half life of about 4 days. Therefore, after a week we still have 1/4 (25%) left - at two weeks we have 1/8th left. 



  The photograph above shows the brain of a healthy newborn test animal (left) and one born to a test animal exposed to the NALED metabolite DICHLORVOS. Researchers found that animals exposed to Dichlorvos during days 45-47 of gestation experienced a 15% reduction in brain size. This medical study provides strong support to the contention that NALED or its metabolites could in fact be contributing to an increase in microcephaly in areas where NALED is applied.

Study conducted by:
University of Oslo,
Department of Biology


Within hours after being sprayed, the pesticide NALED (also called DIBROM) breaks-down to the even more toxic chemical dichlorvos (also called DDVP). Studies have shown these breakdown compounds are highly toxic to critical cells in the human immune system. Your immune system protects you from colds, flu, encephalitis and even ZIKA. This first study found that human Natural Killer Cells experienced what is called apotosis (cell death) after exposure to dichlorvos. The ability of dichlorvos to destroy Natural Killer cells was compared to the pesticide Chlorpyrifos. Dichlorvos was found to cause more damage to NK cells and at lower levels of exposure than Chlorpyrifos. Interestingly, Chlorpyrifos has been banned for indoor use in the United States but Naled/dichlorvos is still allowed.
MCAN COMMENT: It is important to understand that any compound that significantly weakens the immune system will result in more viral infections, faster growth of viruses - and potential for more severe outcomes.

Study conducted by:
Dept of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.


While the pesticide NALED has been shown to provide some short term benefit in reducing mosquito populations, its use actually ended up with increasing mosquito populations 15-fold over eleven years in this New York study. It is not known why this happened but could be related to the death or relocations of mosquito predators including dragon flies - bats - and some bird species. Certainly, if this study is correct, it provides some of the strongest evidence to date for re-considering the use of pesticides for "reducing" mosquito populations.

Study conducted by:
New York State Department of Health, SUNY-College ESF, Syracuse 13210, USA.


Naled is said to be highly toxic to birds. It takes about 50 milligrams of Naled per kilogram body weight of the animal (mg/kg) to kill about half of mallard ducks and Canadian Geese (this is called LD50). For comparison, it takes about 1400 mg/kg of the pesticide malathion to kill the duck as seen above. Therefore, Naled is about 25 times more poisonous than malathion in regards to the amount needed to kill these animals. Naled's breakdown chemical Dichlorvos is even more toxic. It takes only 12 mg/kg to kill 50% of wild birds. For comparison here, dichlorvos is 4 times more toxic than Naled and over 100 times more poisonous than malathion. The CDC website on Naled and Dichlorvos says that aerial spraying of Naled will not kill birds or other animals - yet, the picture above shows a duck killed by malathion and NALED is shown to be 25 times more poisonus than malathion. These facts can be seen on the Cornell Fact Sheet as well as amounts of Naled needed to kill fish and food sources for fish.